CaZnOS:Mn2+ is a rare-earth-free luminescent compound with an orange broadband emission at 612 nm, featuring pressure sensing capabilities, often explained by defect levels where energy can be stored. Despite recent efforts from experimental and theoretical points of view, the underlying luminescence mechanisms in this phosphor still lack a profound understanding. By the evaluation of thermoluminescence as a function of the charging wavelength, we probe the defect levels allowing energy storage. Multiple trap depths and trapping routes are found, suggesting predominantly local trapping close to Mn2+ impurities. We demonstrate that this phosphor shows mechanoluminescence which is unexpectedly stable at high temperature (up to 200 °C), allowing pressure sensing in a wide temperature range. Next, we correlate the spectroscopic results with a theoretical study of the electronic structure and stability of the Mn defects in CaZnOS. DFT calculations at the PBE+U level indicate that Mn impurities are incorporated on the Zn site in a divalent charge state, which is confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) is predicted from the location of the Mn impurity levels, obtained from the calculated defect formation energies. This LMCT proves to be a very efficient pathway for energy storage. The excited state landscape of the Mn2+ 3d5 electron configuration is assessed through the spin-correlated crystal field and a good correspondence with the emission and excitation spectra is found. In conclusion, studying phosphors at both a single-particle level (i.e. via calculation of defect formation energies) and a many-particle level (i.e. by accurately localizing the excited states) is necessary to obtain a complete picture of luminescent defects, as demonstrated in the case of CaZnOS:Mn2+.
We present the in situ synthesis of Au nanoparticles within the Zr based Metal Organic Framework, UiO-66. The resulting Au@UiO-66 materials were characterized by means of N2 sorption, XRPD, UV-Vis, XRF, XPS and TEM analysis. The Au nanoparticles (NP) are homogeneously distributed along the UiO-66 host matrix when using NaBH4 or H2 as reducing agents. The Au@UiO-66 materials were evaluated as catalysts in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and benzyl amine employing O2 as oxidant. The Au@MOF materials exhibit a very high selectivity towards the ketone (up to 100 %). Regenerability and stability tests demonstrate that the Au@UiO-66 catalyst can be recycled with a negligible loss of Au species and no loss of crystallinity. In situ IR measurements of UiO-66 and Au@UiO-66-NaBH4, before and after treatment with alcohol, showed an increase in IR bands that can be assigned to a combination of physisorbed and chemisorbed alcohol species. This was confirmed by velocity power spectra obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations. Active peroxo and oxo species on Au could be visualized with Raman analysis.
A gallium 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylate metal-organic framework, Ga(OH)(bpydc), denoted as COMOC-4 (COMOC = Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Ghent University) has been synthesized via solvothermal synthesis procedure. The structure has the topology of an aluminum 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylate, the so-called MOF-253. TEM and SEM micrographs show the COMOC-4 crystals are formed in nanoplates with uniform size of 30-50 nm. The UV-Vis spectra of COMOC-4 in methanol solution show maximal electronic absorption at 307 nm. This results from linker to linker transitions as elucidated by time-dependent density functional theory simulations on the linker and COMOC-4 cluster models. When excited at 400 nm, COMOC-4 displays an emission band centered at 542 nm. Upon immersion in different solvents, the emission band for the framework is shifted in the range of 525~548 nm, depending on the solvent. After incorporating Eu3+ cations, the emission band of the framework is shifted to even shorter wavelengths (505 nm). By varying the excitation wavelengths from 250 to 400 nm, we can fine-tune the emission from red to yellowish green in the CIE diagram. The luminescence behavior of Eu3+ cations is well preserved and the solid state luminescence lifetimes of λ1 = 45 µs (35.4 %) and λ2 = 162 µs (64.6 %) are observed.