Electron magnetic resonance analysis of radiation-induced defects in dipotassium glucose-1-phosphate dihydrate single crystals in situ X-irradiated and measured at 77 K shows that at least seven different carbon-centered radical species are trapped. Four of these (R1−R4) can be fully or partly characterized in terms of proton hyperfine coupling tensors. The dominant radical (R2) is identified as a C1-centered species, assumedly formed by a scission of the sugar−phosphate junction and the concerted formation of a carbonyl group at the neighboring C2 carbon. This structure is chemically identical to a radical recently identified in irradiated sucrose single crystals. Radical species R1 and R4 most likely are C3- and C6-centered species, respectively, both formed by a net hydrogen abstraction. R3 is suggested to be chemically similar to but geometrically different from R4. Knowledge of the identity of the sugar radicals present at 77 K provides a first step in elucidating the formation mechanism of the phosphoryl radicals previously detected after X-irradiation at 280 K. In paper II, the chemical identity, precise conformation, and possible formation mechanisms of these radical species are investigated by means of DFT calculations and elementary insight into the radiation chemistry of sugar and sugar derivatives is obtained.