Y. Shao

Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

Y. Shao, et al., A. Ghysels
Molecular Physics
113 (2), 184-215


A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller–Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

Vibrational subsystem analysis: A method for probing free energies and correlations in the harmonic limit

H. Lee Woodcock III, W. Zheng, A. Ghysels, Y. Shao, J. Kong, B.R. Brooks
Journal of Chemical Physics
129 (21), 214109


A new vibrational subsystem analysis (VSA) method is presented for coupling global motion to a local subsystem while including the inertial effects of the environment. The premise of the VSA method is a partitioning of a system into a smaller region of interest and a usually larger part referred to as environment. This method allows the investigation of local-global coupling, a more accurate estimation of vibrational free energy contribution for parts of a large system, and the elimination of the “tip effect” in elastic network model calculations. Additionally, the VSA method can be used as a probe of specific degrees of freedom that may contribute to free energy differences. The VSA approach can be employed in many ways, but it will likely be most useful for estimating activation free energies in QM/MM reaction path calculations. Four examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of this method.

Efficient Calculation of QM/MM Frequencies with the Mobile Block Hessian

A. Ghysels, H. Lee Woodcock III, J.D. Larkin, B.T. Miller, Y. Shao, J. Kong, D. Van Neck, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, B.R. Brooks
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation (JCTC)
7 (2), 496–514


The calculation of the analytical second derivative matrix (Hessian) is the bottleneck for vibrational analysis in QM/MM systems when an electrostatic embedding scheme is employed. Even with a small number of QM atoms in the system, the presence of MM atoms increases the computational cost dramatically: the long-range Coulomb interactions require that additional coupled perturbed self-consistent field (CPSCF) equations need to be solved for each MM atom displacement. This paper presents an extension to the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) formalism for QM/MM calculations with blocks in the MM region and its implementation in a parallel version of the Q-Chem/CHARMM interface. MBH reduces both the CPU time and the memory requirements compared to the standard full Hessian QM/MM analysis, without the need to use a cutoff distance for the electrostatic interactions. Special attention is given to the treatment of link atoms which are usually present when the QM/MM border cuts through a covalent bond. Computational efficiency improvements are highlighted using a reduced chorismate mutase enzyme system, consisting of 24 QM atoms and 306 MM atoms, as a test example. In addition, the drug bortezomib, used for cancer treatment of myeloma, has been studied as a test case with multiple MBH block choices and both a QM and QM/MM description. The accuracy of the calculated Hessians is quantified by imposing Eckart constraints, which allows for the assessment of numerical errors in second derivative procedures. The results show that MBH within the QM/MM description not only is a computationally attractive method but also produces accurate results.

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