Overview of N-rich antennae investigated in lanthanide-based temperature sensing

F. Vanden Bussche, A.M. Kaczmarek, V. Van Speybroeck, P. Van der Voort, C.V. Stevens
Chemistry - A European Journal
27 (25), 7214-7230


The market share of noncontact temperature sensors is expending due to fast technological and medical evolutions. In the wide variety of noncontact sensors, lanthanide‐based temperature sensors stand out. They benefit from high photostability, relatively long decay times and high quantum yields. To circumvent their low molar light absorption, the incorporation of a light‐harvesting antenna is required. This Review provides an overview of the nitrogen‐rich antennae in lanthanide‐based temperature sensors, emitting in the visible light spectrum, and discusses their temperature sensor ability. The N‐rich ligands are incorporated in many different platforms. The investigation of different antennae is required to develop temperature sensors with diverse optical properties and to create a diverse offer for the multiple application fields. Molecular probes, consisting of small molecules, are first discussed. Furthermore, the thermometer properties of ratiometric temperature sensors, based on di‐ and polynuclear complexes, metal–organic frameworks, periodic mesoporous organosilicas and porous organic polymers, are summarized. The antenna mainly determines the application potential of the ratiometric thermometer. It can be observed that molecular probes are operational in the broad physiological range, metal–organic frameworks are generally very useful in the cryogenic region, periodic mesoporous organosilica show temperature dependency in the physiological range, and porous organic polymers are operative in the cryogenic‐to‐medium temperature range.

Open Access version available at UGent repository