S.M.J. Rogge

Chlorination of a Zeolitic-Imidazolate Framework Tunes Packing and Van der Waals Interaction of Carbon Dioxide for Optimised Adsorptive Separation

L.H. Wee, S. Vandenbrande, S.M.J. Rogge, J. Wieme, K. Asselman, E. Jardim, J. Silvestre-Albero, J. Navarro, V. Van Speybroeck, J.A. Martens, C. Kirschhock
JACS (Journal of the American Chemical Society)
143 (13), 4962-4968
2021
A1

Abstract 

Molecular separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) is of growing interest for biogas upgrading, carbon capture and utilization, methane synthesis and for purification of natural gas. Here, we report a new zeolitic-imidazolate framework (ZIF), coined COK-17, with exceptionally high affinity for the adsorption of CO2 by London dispersion forces, mediated by chlorine substituents of the imidazolate linkers. COK-17 is a new type of flexible zeolitic-imidazolate framework Zn(4,5-dichloroimidazolate)2 with the SOD framework topology. Below 200 K it displays a metastable closed-pore phase next to its stable open-pore phase. At temperatures above 200 K, COK-17 always adopts its open-pore structure, providing unique adsorption sites for selective CO2 adsorption and packing through van der Waals interactions with the chlorine groups, lining the walls of the micropores. Localization of the adsorbed CO2 molecules by Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and periodic density functional theory calculations revealed the presence and nature of different adsorption sites. In agreement with experimental data, grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of adsorption isotherms of CO2 and CH4 in COK-17 confirmed the role of the chlorine functions of the linkers and demonstrated the superiority of COK-17 compared to other adsorbents such as ZIF-8 and ZIF-71.

Gold Open Access

Quantifying the likelihood of structural models through a dynamically enhanced powder X‐ray diffraction protocol

S. Borgmans, S.M.J. Rogge, J. De Vos, C.V. Stevens, P. Van der Voort, V. Van Speybroeck
Angewandte Chemie int. Ed.
60 (16), 8913-8922
2021
A1

Abstract 

Structurally characterizing new materials is tremendously challenging, especially when single crystal structures are hardly available which is often the case for covalent organic frameworks. Yet, knowledge of the atomic structure is key to establish structure‐function relations and enable functional material design. Herein a new protocol is proposed to unambiguously predict the structure of poorly crystalline materials through a likelihood ordering based on the X‐ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Key of the procedure is the broad set of structures generated from a limited number of building blocks and topologies, which is submitted to operando structural characterization. The dynamic averaging in the latter accounts for the operando conditions and inherent temporal character of experimental measurements, yielding unparalleled agreement with experimental powder XRD patterns. The proposed concept can hence unquestionably identify the structure of experimentally synthesized materials, a crucial step to design next generation functional materials.

Gold Open Access

Texture Formation in Polycrystalline Thin Films of All-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite

J.A. Steele, E. Solano, H. Jin, V. Prakasam, T. Braeckevelt, H. Yuan, Z. Lin, R. de Kloe, Q. Wang, S.M.J. Rogge, V. Van Speybroeck, D. Chernyshov, J. Hofkens, M. Roeffaers
Advanced Materials
33 (13), 2007224
2021
A1

Abstract 

Controlling grain orientations within polycrystalline all-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells can help increase conversion efficiencies toward their thermodynamic limits, however the forces governing texture formation are ambiguous. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we report meso-structure formation within polycrystalline CsPbI2.85Br0.15 powders as they cool from a high-temperature cubic perovskite (α-phase). Tetragonal distortions (β-phase) trigger preferential crystallographic alignment within polycrystalline ensembles, a feature we suggest is coordinated across multiple neighboring grains via interfacial forces that select for certain lattice distortions over others. External anisotropy is then imposed on polycrystalline thin films of orthorhombic (γ-phase) CsPbI3-xBrx perovskite via substrate clamping, revealing two fundamental uniaxial texture formations; (i) I-rich films possess orthorhombic-like texture (<100> out-of-plane; <010> and <001> in-plane), while (ii) Br-rich films form tetragonal-like texture (<110> out-of-plane; <1-10> and <001> in-plane). In contrast to relatively uninfluential factors like the choice of substrate, film thickness and annealing temperature, Br incorporation modifies the γ-CsPbI3-xBrx crystal structure by reducing the orthorhombic lattice distortion (making it more tetragonal-like) and governs the formation of the different, energetically favored textures within polycrystalline thin films.

Strongly Reducing (Diarylamino)benzene Based Covalent Organic Framework for Metal-Free Visible Light Photocatalytic H2O2 Generation

C. Krishnaraj, H. S. Jena, L. Bourda, A. Laemont, P. Pachfule, J. Roeser, C. V. Chandran, S. Borgmans, S.M.J. Rogge, K. Leus, C.V. Stevens, J.A. Martens, V. Van Speybroeck, E. Breynaert, A. Thomas, P. Van der Voort
JACS (Journal of the American Chemical Society)
142 (47), 20107-20116
2020
A1

Abstract 

Photocatalytic reduction of molecular oxygen is a promising route toward sustainable production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This challenging process requires photoactive semiconductors enabling solar energy driven generation and separation of electrons and holes with high charge transfer kinetics. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of photoactive semiconductors, tunable at a molecular level for high charge carrier generation and transfer. Herein, we report two newly designed two-dimensional COFs based on a (diarylamino)benzene linker that forms a Kagome (kgm) lattice and shows strong visible light absorption. Their high crystallinity and large surface areas (up to 1165 m2·g−1) allow efficient charge transfer and diffusion. The diarylamine (donor) unit promotes strong reduction properties, enabling these COFs to efficiently reduce oxygen to form H2O2. Overall, the use of a metal-free, recyclable photocatalytic system allows efficient photocatalytic solar transformations.

Gold Open Access

Charting the Metal-Dependent High-Pressure Stability of Bimetallic UiO-66 Materials

S.M.J. Rogge, P.G. Yot, J. Jacobsen, F. Muniz-Miranda, S. Vandenbrande, J. Gosch, V. Ortiz, I. Collings, S. Devautour-Vinot, G. Maurin, N. Stock, V. Van Speybroeck
ACS Materials Letters
2 (4), 438-445
2020
A1

Abstract 

In theory, bimetallic UiO-66(Zr:Ce) and UiO-66(Zr:Hf) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are extremely versatile and attractive nanoporous materials as they combine the high catalytic activity of UiO-66(Ce) or UiO-66(Hf) with the outstanding stability of UiO-66(Zr). Using in situ high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction, however, we observe that this expected mechanical stability is not achieved when incorporating cerium or hafnium in UiO-66(Zr). This observation is akin to the earlier observed reduced thermal stability of UiO-66(Zr:Ce) compounds. To elucidate the atomic origin of this phenomenon, we chart the loss-of-crystallinity pressures of 22 monometallic and bimetallic UiO-66 materials and systematically isolate their intrinsic mechanical stability from their defect-induced weakening. This complementary experimental/computational approach reveals that the intrinsic mechanical stability of these bimetallic MOFs decreases nonlinearly upon cerium incorporation but remains unaffected by the zirconium:hafnium ratio. Additionally, all experimental samples suffer from defect-induced weakening, a synthesis-controlled effect that is observed to be independent of their intrinsic stability.

The micromechanical model to computationally investigate cooperative and correlated phenomena in metal-organic frameworks

S.M.J. Rogge
Faraday Discussions
225, 271-285
2021
A1

Abstract 

Computational insight in the impact of cooperative phenomena and correlated spatial disorder on the macroscopic behaviour of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is essential to consciously engineer these phenomena for targeted applications. However, the spatial extent of these effects, ranging over hundreds of nanometres, limits the applicability of current state-of-the-art computational tools in this field. To obtain a fundamental understanding on these long-range effects, the micromechanical model is introduced here. This model overcomes the challenges associated with conventional coarse-graining techniques by exploiting the natural partitioning of a MOF material into unit cells. By adopting the elastic deformation energy as the central quantity, the micromechanical model hierarchically builds on experimentally accessible input parameters that are obtained from atomistic quantum mechanical or force field simulations. As a result, the here derived micromechanical equations of motion can be adopted to shed light on the effect of long-range cooperative phenomena and correlated spatial disorder on the performance of mesoscale MOF materials.

Unraveling the thermodynamic criteria for size-dependent spontaneous phase separation in soft porous crystals

S.M.J. Rogge, M. Waroquier, V. Van Speybroeck
Nature Communications
10, 4842
2019
A1

Abstract 

Soft porous crystals (SPCs) harbor a great potential as functional nanoporous materials owing to their stimuli-induced and tuneable morphing between different crystalline phases. These large-amplitude phase transitions are often assumed to occur cooperatively throughout the whole material, which thereby retains its perfect crystalline order. Here, we disprove this paradigm through mesoscale first-principles based molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrating that morphological transitions do induce spatial disorder under the form of interfacial defects and give rise to yet unidentified phase coexistence within a given sample. We hypothesize that this phase coexistence can be stabilized by carefully tuning the experimental control variables through, e.g., temperature or pressure quenching. The observed spatial disorder helps to rationalize yet elusive phenomena in SPCs, such as the impact of crystal downsizing on their flexible nature, thereby identifying the crystal size as a crucial design parameter for stimuli-responsive devices based on SPC nanoparticles and thin films.

Gold Open Access

Pillared-layered metal-organic frameworks for mechanical energy storage applications

J. Wieme, S.M.J. Rogge, P.G. Yot, L. Vanduyfhuys, S.-K. Lee, J.-S. Chang, M. Waroquier, G. Maurin, V. Van Speybroeck
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
7 (39), 22663-22674
2019
A1

Abstract 

Herein we explore the unique potential of pillared-layered metal–organic frameworks of the DMOF-1 family for mechanical energy storage applications. In this work, we theoretically predict for the guest-free DMOF-1 a new contracted phase by exerting an external mechanical pressure of more than 200 MPa with respect to the stable phase at atmospheric pressure. The breathing transition is accompanied by a very large volume contraction of about 40%. The high transition pressures and associated volume changes make these materials highly promising with an outstanding mechanical energy work. Furthermore, we show that changing the nature of the metal allows to tune the behavior under mechanical pressure. The various phases were revealed by a combination of periodic density-functional theory calculations, force field molecular dynamics simulations and mercury intrusion experiments for DMOF-1(Zn) and DMOF-1(Cu). The combined experimental and theoretical approach allowed to discover the potential of these materials for new technological developments.

Gold Open Access

Thermal unequilibrium of strained black CsPbI3 thin films

J.A. Steele, H. Jin, I. Dovgaliuk, R.F. Berger, T. Braeckevelt, H. Yuan, C. Martin, E. Solano, K. Lejaeghere, S.M.J. Rogge, C. Notebaert, W. Vandezande, K.P.F. Janssen, B. Goderis, E. Debroye, Y.-K. Wang, Y. Dong, D. Ma, M. Saidaminov, H. Tan, Z. Lu, V. Dyadkin, D. Chernyshov, V. Van Speybroeck, E.H. Sargent, J. Hofkens, M. Roeffaers
Science
365 (6454), 679-684
2019
A1

Abstract 

The high-temperature all-inorganic CsPbI3 perovskite black phase is metastable relative to its yellow non-perovskite phase, at room temperature. Since only the black phase is optically active, this represents an impediment for the use of CsPbI3 in optoelectronic devices. We report the use of substrate clamping and biaxial strain to render stable, at room temperature, black phase CsPbI3 thin films. We used synchrotron-based grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering to track the introduction of crystal distortions and strain-driven texture formation within black CsPbI3 thin films when they were cooled following annealing at 330°C. The thermal stability of black CsPbI3 thin films is vastly improved by the strained interface, a response verified by ab initio thermodynamic modelling.

Open Access version available at UGent repository
Gold Open Access

Insight into the role of water on the methylation of hexamethylbenzene in H-SAPO-34 from first principle molecular dynamics simulations

S. Bailleul, S.M.J. Rogge, L. Vanduyfhuys, V. Van Speybroeck
ChemCatChem
11 (16), 3993-4010
2019
A1

Abstract 

The methylation of hexamethylbenzene with methanol is one of the key reactions in the methanol‐to‐olefins hydrocarbon pool reaction cycle taking place over the industrially relevant H‐SAPO‐34 zeolite. This methylation reaction can occur either via a concerted or via a stepwise mechanism, the latter being the preferred pathway at higher temperatures. Herein, we systematically investigate how a complex reaction environment with additional water molecules and higher concentrations of Brønsted acid sites in the zeolite impacts the reaction mechanism. To this end, first principle molecular dynamics simulations are performed using enhanced sampling methods to characterize the reactants and products in the catalyst pores and to construct the free energy profiles. The most prominent effect of the dynamic sampling of the reaction path is the stabilization of the product region where water is formed, which can either move freely in the pores of the zeolite or be stabilized through hydrogen bonding with the other protic molecules. These protic molecules also stabilize the deprotonated Brønsted acid site, created due to the formation of the heptamethylbenzenium cation, via a Grotthuss‐type mechanism. Our results provide fundamental insight in the experimental parameters that impact the methylation of hexamethylbenzene in H‐SAPO‐34, especially highlighting and rationalizing the crucial role of water in one of the main reactions of the aromatics‐based reaction cycle.

Gold Open Access

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