V. Van Speybroeck

Covalent immobilization of the Jacobsen catalyst on mesoporous phenolic polymer: a highly enantioselective and stable asymmetric epoxidation catalyst

J. De Decker, T. Bogaerts, I. Muylaert, S. Delahaye, F. Lynen, V. Van Speybroeck, A. Verberckmoes, P. Van der Voort
Materials Chemistry and Physics
141 (2013), 967-972
2013
A1

Abstract 

The Jacobsen catalyst, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediaminomanganese (III) chloride is covalently immobilized on mesoporous phenolic resin through a direct and simple procedure. The immobilization is evident from nitrogen sorption and quantitative XRF measurements. A complex loading of 0.09 mmol g−1 is obtained, corresponding to well dispersed Mn-complexes on the surface of the mesoporous phenolic resin. This novel catalytic system shows good catalytic activity and excellent enantioselectivity in the asymmetric epoxidation of 1,2-dialin. The heterogenized Jacobsen catalyst is demonstrated to be a re-usable and non-leaching catalytic system.

Open Access version available at UGent repository

Bipyridine-Based Nanosized Metal–Organic Framework with Tunable Luminescence by a Postmodification with Eu(III): An Experimental and Theoretical Study

Y-Y Liu, R. Decadt, T. Bogaerts, K. Hemelsoet, A.M. Kaczmarek, D. Poelman, M. Waroquier, V. Van Speybroeck, R. Van Deun, P. Van der Voort
Journal of Physical Chemistry C
117 (21), 11302–11310
2013
A1

Abstract 

A gallium 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylate metal-organic framework, Ga(OH)(bpydc), denoted as COMOC-4 (COMOC = Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Ghent University) has been synthesized via solvothermal synthesis procedure. The structure has the topology of an aluminum 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylate, the so-called MOF-253. TEM and SEM micrographs show the COMOC-4 crystals are formed in nanoplates with uniform size of 30-50 nm. The UV-Vis spectra of COMOC-4 in methanol solution show maximal electronic absorption at 307 nm. This results from linker to linker transitions as elucidated by time-dependent density functional theory simulations on the linker and COMOC-4 cluster models. When excited at 400 nm, COMOC-4 displays an emission band centered at 542 nm. Upon immersion in different solvents, the emission band for the framework is shifted in the range of 525~548 nm, depending on the solvent. After incorporating Eu3+ cations, the emission band of the framework is shifted to even shorter wavelengths (505 nm). By varying the excitation wavelengths from 250 to 400 nm, we can fine-tune the emission from red to yellowish green in the CIE diagram. The luminescence behavior of Eu3+ cations is well preserved and the solid state luminescence lifetimes of λ1 = 45 µs (35.4 %) and λ2 = 162 µs (64.6 %) are observed.

Hirshfeld-E partitioning: AIM charges with an improved trade-off between robustness and accurate electrostatics

T. Verstraelen, P.W. Ayers, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation (JCTC)
9 (5), 2221–2225
2013
A1

Abstract 

For the development of ab-initio derived force fields, atomic charges must be computed from electronic structure computations, such that (i) they accurately describe the molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) and (ii) they are transferable to the force-field application of interest. The Iterative Hirshfeld (Hirshfeld-I or HI) scheme meets both requirements for organic molecules. For inorganic oxide clusters, however, Hirshfeld-I becomes ambiguous because electron densities of nonexistent isolated anions are needed as input. Herein, we propose a simple Extended Hirshfeld (Hirshfeld-E or HE) scheme to overcome this limitation. The performance of the new HE scheme is compared to four popular atoms-in-molecules schemes, using two tests involving a set of 248 silica clusters. These tests show that the new HE scheme provides an improved trade-off between the ESP accuracy and the transferability of the charges. The new scheme is a generalization of the Hirshfeld-I scheme and it is expected that its improvements are to a large extent applicable to molecular systems containing elements from the entire periodic table.

Error estimates for solid-state density-functional theory predictions: an overview by means of the ground-state elemental crystals

K. Lejaeghere, V. Van Speybroeck, G. Van Oost, S. Cottenier
Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences
39 (1), 1-24
2014
A1

Abstract 

Predictions of observable properties by density-functional theory calculations (DFT) are used increasingly often by experimental condensed-matter physicists and materials engineers as data. These predictions are used to analyze recent measurements, or to plan future experiments in a rational way. Increasingly more experimental scientists in these fields therefore face the natural question: what is the expected error for such a first-principles prediction? Information and experience about this question is implicitly available in the computational community, scattered over two decades of literature. The present review aims to summarize and quantify this implicit knowledge. This eventually leads to a practical protocol that allows any scientist -- experimental or theoretical -- to determine justifiable error estimates for many basic property predictions, without having to perform additional DFT calculations.

A central role is played by a large and diverse test set of crystalline solids, containing all ground-state elemental crystals (except most lanthanides). For several properties of each crystal, the difference between DFT results and experimental values is assessed. We discuss trends in these deviations and review explanations suggested in the literature.

A prerequisite for such an error analysis is that different implementations of the same first-principles formalism provide the same predictions. Therefore, the reproducibility of predictions across several mainstream methods and codes is discussed too. A quality factor Delta expresses the spread in predictions from two distinct DFT implementations by a single number. To compare the PAW method to the highly accurate APW+lo approach, a code assessment of VASP and GPAW (PAW) with respect to WIEN2k (APW+lo) yields Delta-values of 1.8 and 3.3 meV/atom, respectively. In both cases the PAW potentials recommended by the respective codes have been used. These differences are an order of magnitude smaller than the typical difference with experiment, and therefore predictions by APW+lo and PAW are for practical purposes identical.

Complete low-barrier side-chain route for olefin formation during methanol conversion in H-SAPO-34

K. De Wispelaere, K. Hemelsoet, M. Waroquier, V. Van Speybroeck
Journal of Catalysis
305, 76-80
2013
A1

Abstract 

The methanol to olefins process is an alternative for oil-based production of ethene and propene. However, detailed information on the reaction mechanisms of olefin formation in different zeolite is lacking. Herein a first principle kinetic study allows elucidating the importance of a side-chain mechanism during methanol conversion in H-SAPO-34. Starting from the experimentally observed hexamethylbenzene, a full low-barrier catalytic cycle for ethene and propene formation is found. The olefin elimination steps exhibit low free energy barriers due to a subtle interplay between an sp3 carbon center of the organic intermediate, stabilizing non-bonding interactions and assisting water molecules in the zeolite material.

Open Access version available at UGent repository

Unraveling the Reaction Mechanisms Governing Methanol-to-Olefins Catalysis by Theory and Experiment

K. Hemelsoet, J. Van der Mynsbrugge, K. De Wispelaere, M. Waroquier, V. Van Speybroeck
ChemPhysChem
14 (8),1526-1545
2013
A1

Abstract 

The conversion of methanol to olefins (MTO) over a heterogeneous nanoporous catalyst material is a highly complex process involving a cascade of elementary reactions. The elucidation of the reaction mechanisms leading to either the desired production of ethene and/or propene or undesired deactivation has challenged researchers for many decades. Clearly, catalyst choice, in particular topology and acidity, as well as the specific process conditions determine the overall MTO activity and selectivity; however, the subtle balances between these factors remain not fully understood. In this review, an overview of proposed reaction mechanisms for the MTO process is given, focusing on the archetypal MTO catalysts, H-ZSM-5 and H-SAPO-34. The presence of organic species, that is, the so-called hydrocarbon pool, in the inorganic framework forms the starting point for the majority of the mechanistic routes. The combination of theory and experiment enables a detailed description of reaction mechanisms and corresponding reaction intermediates. The identification of such intermediates occurs by different spectroscopic techniques, for which theory and experiment also complement each other. Depending on the catalyst topology, reaction mechanisms proposed thus far involve aromatic or aliphatic intermediates. Ab initio simulations taking into account the zeolitic environment can nowadays be used to obtain reliable reaction barriers and chemical kinetics of individual reactions. As a result, computational chemistry and by extension computational spectroscopy have matured to the level at which reliable theoretical data can be obtained, supplying information that is very hard to acquire experimentally. Special emphasis is given to theoretical developments that open new perspectives and possibilities that aid to unravel a process as complex as methanol conversion over an acidic porous material.

On the thermodynamics of framework breathing: A free energy model for gas adsorption in MIL-53

A. Ghysels, L. Vanduyfhuys, M. Vandichel, M. Waroquier, V. Van Speybroeck, B. Smit
Journal of Physical Chemistry C
117, 11540-11554
2013
A1

Abstract 

When adsorbing guest molecules, the porous metal-organic framework MIL-53(Cr) may vary its cell parameters drastically while retaining its crystallinity. A first approach to the thermodynamic analysis of this 'framework breathing' consists of comparing the osmotic potential in two distinct shapes only (large-pore and narrow-pore). In this paper, we propose a generic parametrized free energy model including three contributions: host free energy, guest-guest interactions, and host-guest interaction. Free energy landscapes may now be constructed scanning all shapes and any adsorbed amount of guest molecules. This allows to determine which shapes are the most stable states for arbitrary combinations of experimental control parameters, such as the adsorbing gas chemical potential, the external pressure, and the temperature. The new model correctly reproduces the structural transitions along the CO2 and CH4 isotherms. Moreover, our model successfully explains the adsorption versus desorption hysteresis as a consequence of the creation, stabilization, destabilization, and disappearance of a second free energy minimum under the assumptions of a first order phase transition and collective behavior. Our general thermodynamic description allows to decouple the gas chemical potential μ and mechanical pressure P as two independent thermodynamic variables and predict the complete (μ,P) phase diagram for CO2 adsorption in MIL-53(Cr). The free energy model proposed here is an important step towards a general thermodynamics description of flexible metal-organic frameworks.

Quantification of silanol sites for the most common mesoporous ordered silicas and organosilicas: total versus accessible silanols

M. Ide, M. El-Roz, E. De Canck, A. Vicente, T. Planckaert, T. Bogaerts, I. Van Driessche, F. Lynen, V. Van Speybroeck, F. Thibault-Starzyk, P. Van der Voort
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (PCCP)
15, 642-650
2013
A1

Abstract 

IR and NMR spectroscopy were used to determine the silanol content in the most common mesoporous ordered silicas: MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15 and SBA-16. In addition, a spray dried MCM-41 and an ethene bridged PMO are investigated. The results are compared with a commercial chromatographic silica (Nucleosil). The complete distribution of surface and bulk silanols, and of isolated, geminal and vicinal silanols for all these materials is presented. A distinction is made between the total silanol number and the reachable or surface silanol content. The latter is determined by controlled reactions with simple silanes. All mesoporous ordered silicas, and especially the thick walled SBA-type materials and the PMO contain a surprisingly high amount of total silanol sites, albeit that up to 90% if these silanols are buried inside the walls and are not reachable for small silanes.

Diphosphonylation of Aromatic Diazaheterocycles and Theoretical Rationalization of Product Yields

A. De Blieck, S. Catak, W. Debrouwer, J. Drabowicz, K. Hemelsoet, T. Verstraelen, M. Waroquier, V. Van Speybroeck, C. Stevens
European Journal of Organic Chemistry
2013 (6), 1058-1067
2013
A1

Abstract 

Diphosphonylated diazaheterocyclic compounds were synthesized in a one-step reaction by using dimethyl trimethylsilyl phosphite (DMPTMS) under acidic conditions. The reaction of DMPTMS with 1,5-naphthyridine yielded the corresponding diphosphonylated product through a tandem 1,4–1,2 addition under microwave conditions. This tandem 1,4–1,2 addition was also evaluated for other substrates, namely, 1,10-phenanthroline, 1,7-phenanthroline and 4,7-phenanthroline. Reactions under reflux and microwave conditions were compared. 1,5-Naphthyridine and the phenanthroline derived substrates are less reactive than previously investigated quinolines. The experimental trends in reactivity were rationalized by means of theoretical calculations. The intrinsic properties, such as aromaticity and proton affinities, showed distinct differences for the various substrates. Furthermore, the calculated free energies of activation for the rate-determining step of the tandem addition reaction enabled us to rationalize the differences in product yields. Both the theoretical and the experimental results show the substantial influence of the position of the nitrogen atoms in the (poly)aromatic compounds on the reaction outcome.

Tuning of CeO2 buffer layers for coated superconductors through doping

D.E.P. Vanpoucke, S. Cottenier, V. Van Speybroeck, P. Bultinck, I. Van Driessche
Applied Surface Science
260, 32-35
2012
A1

Abstract 

The appearance of microcracks in cerium oxide (CeO 2) buffer layers, as used in buffer layer architectures for coated superconductors, indicates the presence of stress between this buffer layer and the substrate. This stress can originate from the differences in thermal expansion or differences in lattice parameters between the CeO 2 buffer layer and the substrate. In this article, we study, by means of ab initio density functional theory calculations, the influence of group IV doping elements on the lattice parameter and bulk modulus of CeO 2. Vegard's law behavior is found for the lattice parameter in systems without oxygen vacancies, and the Shannon crystal radii for the doping elements are retrieved from the lattice expansions. We show that the lattice parameter of the doped CeO 2 can be matched to that of the La 2Zr 2O 7 coated NiW substrate substrate for dopant concentrations of about 5%, and that bulk modulus matching is either not possible or would require extreme doping concentrations. [All rights reserved Elsevier].

Open Access version available at UGent repository

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