K. Lejaeghere

Charge transfer induced energy storage in CaZnOS:Mn - insight from experimental and computational spectroscopy

J.J. Joos, K. Lejaeghere, K. Korthout, A. Feng, D. Poelman, P. F. Smet
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (PCCP)
19 (13), 9075-9085
2017
A1

Abstract 

CaZnOS:Mn2+ is a rare-earth-free luminescent compound with an orange broadband emission at 612 nm, featuring pressure sensing capabilities, often explained by defect levels where energy can be stored. Despite recent efforts from experimental and theoretical points of view, the underlying luminescence mechanisms in this phosphor still lack a profound understanding. By the evaluation of thermoluminescence as a function of the charging wavelength, we probe the defect levels allowing energy storage. Multiple trap depths and trapping routes are found, suggesting predominantly local trapping close to Mn2+ impurities. We demonstrate that this phosphor shows mechanoluminescence which is unexpectedly stable at high temperature (up to 200 °C), allowing pressure sensing in a wide temperature range. Next, we correlate the spectroscopic results with a theoretical study of the electronic structure and stability of the Mn defects in CaZnOS. DFT calculations at the PBE+U level indicate that Mn impurities are incorporated on the Zn site in a divalent charge state, which is confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) is predicted from the location of the Mn impurity levels, obtained from the calculated defect formation energies. This LMCT proves to be a very efficient pathway for energy storage. The excited state landscape of the Mn2+ 3d5 electron configuration is assessed through the spin-correlated crystal field and a good correspondence with the emission and excitation spectra is found. In conclusion, studying phosphors at both a single-particle level (i.e. via calculation of defect formation energies) and a many-particle level (i.e. by accurately localizing the excited states) is necessary to obtain a complete picture of luminescent defects, as demonstrated in the case of CaZnOS:Mn2+.

Open Access version available at UGent repository
Gold Open Access

First-principles study of antisite defect configurations in ZnGa2O4:Cr persistent phosphors

A. De Vos, K. Lejaeghere, D.E.P. Vanpoucke, J.J. Joos, P.F. Smet, K. Hemelsoet
Inorganic Chemistry
55 (5), 2402–2412
2016
A1

Abstract 

First-principles simulations on zinc gallate solid phosphors (ZGO) containing a chromium dopant and antisite defects rationalize the attractive interactions between the various elements. A large number of antisite pair configurations is investigated and compared with isolated antisite defects. Defect energies point out the stability of the antisite defects in ZGO. Local structural distortions are reported, and charge transfer mechanisms are analyzed based on theoretical density of states and Hirshfeld-I charges.

Is the error on first-principles volume predictions absolute or relative?

K. Lejaeghere, L. Vanduyfhuys, T. Verstraelen, V. Van Speybroeck, S. Cottenier
Computational Materials Science
117, 390-396
2016
A1

Abstract 

Many benchmarks of density-functional theory with respect to experiment suggest the error on predicted equilibrium volumes to scale with the volume. Relative volume errors are therefore often used as a decisive argument to select one exchange-correlation functional over another. We show that the error on the volume (after correcting for systematic deviations) is only approximately relative. A simple analytic model, validated by rigorous Monte Carlo simulations, reveals that a more accurate error estimate can be derived from the inverse of the bulk modulus. This insight is not only instrumental for the selection or design of suitable functionals. It also calls for a new attitude towards computational errors: to report computational errors on electronic-structure calculations, identify systematic deviations and distinguish between relative and absolute effects. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Open Access version available at UGent repository

Reproducibility in density functional theory calculations of solids

K. Lejaeghere, G. Bihlmayer, T. Björkman, P. Blaha, S. Blügel, V. Blum, D. Caliste, I.E. Castelli, S.J. Clark, A. Dal Corso, S. de Gironcoli, T. Deutsch, J.K. Dewhurst, I. Di Marco, C. Draxl, M. Dułak, O. Eriksson, J.A. Flores-Livas, K.F. Garrity, L. Genovese, P. Giannozzi, M. Giantomassi, S. Goedecker, X. Gonze, O. Grånäs, E.K.U. Gross, A. Gulans, F. Gygi, D.R. Hamann, P.J. Hasnip, N.A.W. Holzwarth, D. Iușan, D.B. Jochym, F. Jollet, D. Jones, G. Kresse, K. Koepernik, E. Küçükbenli, Y.O. Kvashnin, I.L.M. Locht, S. Lubeck, M. Marsman, N. Marzari, U. Nitzsche, L. Nordström, T. Ozaki, L. Paulatto, C.J. Pickard, W. Poelmans, M.I.J. Probert, K. Refson, M. Richter, G.-M. Rignanese, S. Saha, M. Scheffler, M. Schlipf, K. Schwarz, S. Sharma, F. Tavazza, P. Thunström, A. Tkatchenko, M. Torrent, D. Vanderbilt, M.J. van Setten, V. Van Speybroeck, J.M. Wills, J.R. Yates, G.-X. Zhang, S. Cottenier
Science
351 (6280), 1415-aad3000-7
2016
A1

Abstract 

The widespread popularity of density functional theory has given rise to an extensive range of dedicated codes for predicting molecular and crystalline properties. However, each code implements the formalism in a different way, raising questions about the reproducibility of such predictions. We report the results of a community-wide effort that compared 15 solid-state codes, using 40 different potentials or basis set types, to assess the quality of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof equations of state for 71 elemental crystals. We conclude that predictions from recent codes and pseudopotentials agree very well, with pairwise differences that are comparable to those between different high-precision experiments. Older methods, however, have less precise agreement. Our benchmark provides a framework for users and developers to document the precision of new applications and methodological improvements.

Understanding Intrinsic Light Absorption Properties of UiO- 66 Frameworks: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study

K. Hendrickx, D.E.P. Vanpoucke, K. Leus, K. Lejaeghere, A. Van Yperen-De Deyne, V. Van Speybroeck, P. Van der Voort, K. Hemelsoet
Inorganic Chemistry
54, 22, 10701-10710
2015
A1

Abstract 

A combined theoretical and experimental study is performed in order to elucidate the effects of linker functional groups on the photoabsorption properties of UiO-66-type materials. This study, in which both mono- and di-functionalized linkers (with X= -OH, -NH2, -SH) are studied, aims to obtain a more complete picture on the choice of functionalization. Static Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) calculations combined with Molecular Dynamics simulations are performed on the linkers and compared to experimental UV/VIS spectra, in order to understand the electronic effects governing the absorption spectra. Di-substituted linkers show larger shifts compared to mono-substituted variants, making them promising candidates for further study as photocatalysts. Next, the interaction between the linker and the inorganic part of the framework is theoretically investigated using a cluster model. The proposed Ligand-to-Metal-Charge Transfer (LMCT) is theoretically observed and is influenced by the differences in functionalization. Finally, computed electronic properties of the periodic UiO-66 materials reveal that the band gap can be altered by linker functionalization and ranges from 4.0 down to 2.2 eV. Study of the periodic Density of States (DOS) allows to explain the band gap modulations of the framework in terms of a functionalization-induced band in the band gap of the original UiO-66 host.

Mechanical properties from periodic plane wave QM codes: the challenge of the flexible nanoporous MIL-47 (V) framework

D.E.P. Vanpoucke, K. Lejaeghere, V. Van Speybroeck, M. Waroquier, A. Ghysels
Journal of Physical Chemistry C
119, 23752-23766
2015
A1

Abstract 

Modeling the flexibility of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) requires the computation of mechanical properties from first principles, e.g., for screening of materials in a database, for gaining insight into structural transformations, and for force field development. However, this paper shows that computations with periodic density functional theory are challenged by the flexibility of these materials: guidelines from experience with standard solid-state calculations cannot be simply transferred to flexible porous frameworks. Our test case, the MIL-47(V) material, has a large-pore and a narrow-pore shape. The effect of Pulay stress (cf. Pulay forces) leads to drastic errors for a simple structure optimization of the flexible MIL-47(V) material. Pulay stress is an artificial stress that tends to lower the volume and is caused by the finite size of the plane wave basis set. We have investigated the importance of this Pulay stress, of symmetry breaking, and of k-point sampling on (a) the structure optimization and (b) mechanical properties such as elastic constants and bulk modulus, of both the large-pore and narrow-pore structure of MIL-47(V). We found that, in the structure optimization, Pulay effects should be avoided by using a fitting procedure, in which an equation of state E(V) (EOS) is fit to a series of energy versus volume points. Manual symmetry breaking could successfully lower the energy of MIL-47(V) by distorting the vanadium–oxide distances in the vanadyl chains and by rotating the benzene linkers. For the mechanical properties, the curvature of the EOS curve was compared with the Reuss bulk modulus, derived from the elastic tensor in the harmonic approximation. Errors induced by anharmonicity, the eggbox effect, and Pulay effects propagate into the Reuss modulus. The strong coupling of the unit cell axes when the unit cell deforms expresses itself in numerical instability of the Reuss modulus. For a flexible material, it is therefore advisible to resort to the EOS fit procedure.

Open Access version available at UGent repository

Carbon Capture Turned Upside Down: High-Temperature Adsorption & Low-Temperature Desorption (HALD)

L. Joos, K. Lejaeghere, J. Huck, V. Van Speybroeck, B. Smit
Energy & Environmental Science
8, 2480-2491
2015
A1

Abstract 

Carbon Capture & Sequestration (CCS) could reduce CO2 emissions from large fossil-fuel power plants in the short term, but the high energy penalty of the process hinders its industrial deployment. Moreover, the utility of nanoporous materials, known to be selective for the CO2/N2 separation, is drastically reduced due to the competitive adsorption with H2O. Taking advantage of the power plant's waste heat to perform CCS while at the same time surmounting the negative effect of H2O is therefore an attractive idea. We propose an upside-down approach for CCS in nanoporous materials, High-temperature Adsorption & Low-temperature Desorption (HALD), that exploits the temperature-dependent competitive adsorption of CO2 and H2O. First, we provide a theoretical background for this entropy-driven behavior and demonstrate under what conditions competitive adsorption can be in favor of CO2 at high temperature and in favor of H2O at low temperature. Then, molecular simulations in all-silica MFI provide a proof of concept. The International Zeolite Association database is subsequently screened for potential candidates and finally, the most promising materials are selected using a post-Pareto search algorithm. The proposed post-Pareto approach is able to select the material that shows an optimal combination of multiple criteria, such as CO2/H2O selectivity, CO2/N2 selectivity, CO2 uptake and H2O uptake. As a conclusion, this work provides new perspectives to reduce the energy requirement for CCS and to overcome the competitive adsorption of H2O.

Open Access version available at UGent repository

Quasi-1D physics in Metal-Organic Frameworks: MIL-47(V) from first principles

D.E.P. Vanpoucke, J. Jaeken, S. De Baerdemacker, K. Lejaeghere, V. Van Speybroeck
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
5, 1738–1748
2014
A1

Abstract 

The geometric and electronic structure of the MIL-47(V) metal-organic framework (MOF) is investigated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Special focus is placed on the relation between the spin configuration and the properties of the MOF. The ground state is found to be antiferromagnetic, with an equilibrium volume of 1554.70 Å3. The transition pressure of the pressure-induced large-pore-to-narrow-pore phase transition is calculated to be 82 MPa and 124 MPa for systems with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains, respectively. For a mixed system, the transition pressure is found to be a weighted average of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transition pressures. Mapping DFT energies onto a simple-spin Hamiltonian shows both the intra- and inter-chain coupling to be antiferromagnetic, with the latter coupling constant being two orders of magnitude smaller than the former, suggesting the MIL-47(V) to present quasi-1D behavior. The electronic structure of the different spin configurations is investigated and it shows that the band gap position varies strongly with the spin configuration. The valence and conduction bands show a clear V d-character. In addition, these bands are flat in directions orthogonal to VO6 chains, while showing dispersion along the the direction of the VO6 chains, similar as for other quasi-1D materials

Open Access version available at UGent repository

Ab initio based thermal property predictions at a low cost: An error analysis

K. Lejaeghere, J. Jaeken, V. Van Speybroeck, S. Cottenier
Physical Review B
89, 014304
2014
A1

Abstract 

Ab initio calculations often do not straightforwardly yield the thermal properties of a material yet. It requires considerable computational efforts, for example, to predict the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient αV or the melting temperature Tm from first principles. An alternative is to use semi-empirical approaches. They relate the experimental values to first-principles predictors via fits or approximative models. Before applying such methods, however, it is of paramount importance to be aware of the expected errors. We therefore quantify these errors at the DFT-PBE level for several semi-empirical approximations of αV and Tm , and compare them to the errors from fully ab initio methods, which are computationally more intensive. We base our conclusions on a benchmark set of 71 ground-state elemental crystals. For the thermal expansion coefficient, it appears that simple quasiharmonic theory, in combination with different approximations to the Gruneisen parameter, provides a similar overall accuracy as exhaustive first-principles phonon calculations. For the melting temperature, expensive ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations still outperform semi-empirical methods.

Open Access version available at UGent repository

Ranking the stars: A refined Pareto approach to computational materials design

K. Lejaeghere, S. Cottenier, V. Van Speybroeck
Physical Review Letters
111 (7), 075501
2013
A1

Abstract 

We propose a procedure to rank the most interesting solutions from high-throughput materials design studies. Such a tool is becoming indispensable due to the growing size of computational screening studies and the large number of criteria involved in realistic materials design. As a proof of principle, the binary tungsten alloys are screened for both large-weight and high-impact materials, as well as for fusion reactor applications. Moreover, the concept is generally applicable to any design problem where multiple competing criteria have to be optimized.

Open Access version available at UGent repository

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