Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes have been successful for a wide range of photoredox applications thanks to their efficient light-induced metal-to-ligand charge transfer. Using the computational framework of density-functional theory, we report how these complexes can be anchored onto covalent triazine frameworks while maintaining their favorable electronic properties. We moreover show that variation of the nitrogen content of the framework linkers or complex ligands endows the heterogenized catalyst with a unique versatility, spanning a wide range of absorption characteristics and redox potentials. By judiciously choosing the catalyst building blocks, it is even possible to selectively guide the charge transfer toward either the scaffold or the accessible pore sites. Rational design of sustainable and efficient photocatalysts thus comes within reach.
Metal-modified covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) have attracted considerable attention in heterogeneous catalysis due to their strong nitrogen-metal interactions exhibiting superior activity, stability and hence recyclability. Herein, we report on a post-metalation of a bipyridine-based CTFs with an Ir(I) complex for CH borylation of aromatic compounds. Physical characterization of the Ir(I)-based bipyCTF catalyst in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations exhibit a high stabilization energy of the Ir-bipy moiety in the frameworks in the presence of B2Pin2. By using B2Pin2 as a boron source, Ir(I)@bipyCTF efficiently catalyzed the CH borylation of various aromatic compounds with excellent activity and good recyclability. In addition, XAS analysis of the Ir(I)@bipyCTF gave clear evidence for the coordination environment of the Ir.
Diphosphonylated diazaheterocyclic compounds were synthesized in a one-step reaction by using dimethyl trimethylsilyl phosphite (DMPTMS) under acidic conditions. The reaction of DMPTMS with 1,5-naphthyridine yielded the corresponding diphosphonylated product through a tandem 1,4–1,2 addition under microwave conditions. This tandem 1,4–1,2 addition was also evaluated for other substrates, namely, 1,10-phenanthroline, 1,7-phenanthroline and 4,7-phenanthroline. Reactions under reflux and microwave conditions were compared. 1,5-Naphthyridine and the phenanthroline derived substrates are less reactive than previously investigated quinolines. The experimental trends in reactivity were rationalized by means of theoretical calculations. The intrinsic properties, such as aromaticity and proton affinities, showed distinct differences for the various substrates. Furthermore, the calculated free energies of activation for the rate-determining step of the tandem addition reaction enabled us to rationalize the differences in product yields. Both the theoretical and the experimental results show the substantial influence of the position of the nitrogen atoms in the (poly)aromatic compounds on the reaction outcome.