C. Lanssens

Method for making 2-electron response reduced density matrices approximately N-representable

C. Lanssens, Paul W. Ayers, D. Van Neck, S. De Baerdemacker, K. Gunst, P. Bultinck
Journal of Chemical Physics
148, 8, 084104


In methods like geminal-based approaches or coupled cluster that are solved using the projected Schrödinger equation, direct computation of the 2-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is impractical and one falls back to a 2-RDM based on response theory. However, the 2-RDMs from response theory are not $N$-representable. That is, the response 2-RDM does not correspond to an actual physical $N$-electron wave function. We present a new algorithm for making these non-$N$-representable 2-RDMs approximately $N$-representable, i.e., it has the right symmetry and normalization and it fulfills the $P$-, $Q$-, and $G$-conditions. Next to an algorithm which can be applied to any 2-RDM, we have also developed a 2-RDM optimization procedure specifically for seniority-zero 2-RDMs. We aim to find the 2-RDM with the right properties which is the closest (in the sense of the Frobenius norm) to the non-$N$-representable 2-RDM by minimizing the square norm of the difference between this initial response 2-RDM and the targeted 2-RDM under the constraint that the trace is normalized and the 2-RDM, $Q$-matrix, and $G$-matrix are positive semidefinite, i.e., their eigenvalues are non-negative. Our method is suitable for fixing non-$N$-representable 2-RDMs which are close to being $N$-representable. Through the $N$-representability optimization algorithm we add a small correction to the initial 2-RDM such that it fulfills the most important $N$-representability conditions.

An Explicit Approach to Conceptual Density Functional Theory Descriptors of Arbitrary Order

F. Heidar-Zadeh, M. Richer, S. Fias, R.A. Miranda-Quintana, M. Chan, M. Franco-Perez, C. Gonzalez-Espinoza, T.D. Kim, C. Lanssens, A.H.G. Patel, X.D. Yang, E. Vohringer-Martinez, C. Cárdenas, T. Verstraelen, P.W. Ayers
Chemical Physics Letters
660, 307–312


We present explicit formulas for arbitrary-order derivatives of the energy, grand potential, electron density, and higher-order response functions with respect to the number of electrons, and the chemical potential for any smooth and differentiable model of the energy versus the number of electrons. The resulting expressions for global reactivity descriptors (hyperhardnesses and hypersoftnesses), local reactivity descriptors (hyperFukui functions and local hypersoftnesses), and nonlocal response functions are easy to evaluate computationally. Specifically, the explicit formulas for global/local/nonlocal hypersoftnesses of arbitrary order are derived using Bell polynomials. Explicit expressions for global and local hypersoftness indicators up to fifth order are presented.

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