# H. van Aggelen

## The sharp-G N-representability condition

### Abstract

The G-condition for the N-representability of the two-electron reduced density matrix is tightened by replacing the semidefiniteness constraint with the true upper and lower bounds of the G-type Hamiltonian operator. The lower bound is not easily computed (in contrast to the sharp P- and Q-conditions), but maps onto a well-known integer programming problem. The sharp-G, sharp-P, and sharp-Q conditions are just three members of a much broader class of conditions based on exactly solvable model Hamiltonians.

## Extensive v2DM study of the one-dimensional Hubbard model for large lattice sizes: Exploiting translational invariance and parity

### Abstract

Using variational density matrix optimization with two- and three-index conditions we study the one-dimensional Hubbard model with periodic boundary conditions at various filling factors. Special attention is directed to the full exploitation of the available symmetries, more specifically the combination of translational invariance and space-inversion parity, which allows for the study of large lattice sizes. We compare the computational scaling of three different semidefinite programming algorithms with increasing lattice size, and find the boundary point method to be the most suited for this type of problem. Several physical properties, such as the two-particle correlation functions, are extracted to check the physical content of the variationally determined density matrix. It is found that the three-index conditions are needed to correctly describe the full phase diagram of the Hubbard model. We also show that even in the case of half filling, where the ground-state energy is close to the exact value, other properties such as the spin-correlation function can be flawed.

## Variational two-particle density matrix calculation for the Hubbard model below half filling using spin-adapted lifting conditions

### Abstract

The variational determination of the two-particle density matrix is an interesting, but not yet fully explored technique that allows to obtain ground-state properties of a quantum many-body system without reference to an N-particle wave function. The one-dimensional fermionic Hubbard model has been studied before with this method, using standard two- and three-index conditions on the density matrix [J. R. Hammond et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 062505 (2006)], while a more recent study explored so-called subsystem constraints [N. Shenvi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 213003 (2010)]. These studies reported good results even with only standard two-index conditions, but have always been limited to the half-filled lattice. In this Letter we establish the fact that the two-index approach fails for other fillings. In this case, a subset of three-index conditions is absolutely needed to describe the correct physics in the strong-repulsion limit. We show that applying lifting conditions [J.R. Hammond et al., Phys. Rev. A 71, 062503 (2005)] is the most economical way to achieve this, while still avoiding the computationally much heavier three-index conditions. A further extension to spin-adapted lifting conditions leads to increased accuracy in the intermediate repulsion regime. At the same time we establish the feasibility of such studies to the more complicated phase diagram in two-dimensional Hubbard models.

## Considerations on describing non-singlet spin states in variational second order density matrix methods

### Abstract

Despite the importance of non-singlet molecules in chemistry, most variational second order density matrix calculations have focused on singlet states. Ensuring that a second order density matrix is derivable from a proper N-electron spin state is a difficult problem because the second order density matrix only describes one- and two-particle interactions. In pursuit of a consistent description of spin in second order density matrix theory, we propose and evaluate two main approaches: we consider constraints derived from a pure spin state and from an ensemble of spin states. This paper makes a comparative assessment of the different approaches by applying them to potential energy surfaces for different spin states of the oxygen and carbon dimer. We observe two major shortcomings of the applied spin constraints: they are not size consistent and they do not reproduce the degeneracy of the different states in a spin multiplet. First of all, the spin constraints are less strong when applied to a dissociated molecule than when they are applied to the dissociation products separately. Although they impose correct spin expectation values on the dissociated molecule, the dissociation products do not have correct spin expectation values. Secondly, both under “pure spin state conditions” and under “ensemble spin state” conditions is the energy a convex function of the spin projection. Potential energy surfaces for different spin projections of the same spin state may give a completely different picture of the molecule's bonding. The maximal spin projection always gives the most strongly constrained energy, but is also significantly more expensive to compute than a spin-averaged ensemble. In the dissociation limit, both the problem of nondegeneracy of equivalent spin projections, size-inconsistency and unphysical dissociation can be corrected by means of subspace energy constraints.

## Variational determination of the second-order density matrix for the isoelectronic series of beryllium, neon, and silicon

### Abstract

The isoelectronic series of Be, Ne and Si are investigated using a variational determination of the second-order density matrix. A semidefinite program was developed that exploits all rotational and spin symmetries in the atomic system. We find that the method is capable of describing the strong static electron correlations due to the incipient degeneracy in the hydrogenic spectrum for increasing central charge. Apart from the ground-state energy various other properties are extracted from the variationally determined second-order density matrix. The ionization energy is constructed using the extended Koopmans' theorem. The natural occupations are also studied, as well as the correlated Hartree-Fock-like single particle energies. The exploitation of symmetry allows to study the basis set dependence and results are presented for correlation-consistent polarized valence double, triple and quadruple zeta basis sets.

## Incorrect diatomic dissociation in variational reduced density matrix theory arises from the flawed description of fractionally charged atoms

### Abstract

The behaviour of diatomic molecules is examined using the variational second-order density matrix method under the P, Q and G conditions. It is found that the method describes the dissociation limit incorrectly, with fractional charges on the well-separated atoms. This can be traced back to the behaviour of the energy versus the number of electrons for the isolated atoms. It is shown that the energies for fractional charges are much too low.

## Chemical verification of variational second-order density matrix based potential energy surfaces for the N2 isoelectronic series

### Abstract

A variational optimization of the second-order density matrix under the P-, Q-, and G-conditions was carried out for a set of diatomic 14-electron molecules, including N2, O22+, NO+, CO, and CN−. The dissociation of these molecules is studied by analyzing several chemical properties (dipole moments, population analysis, and bond indices) up to the dissociation limit (10 and 20 Å). Serious chemical flaws are observed for the heteronuclear diatomics in the dissociation limit. A careful examination of the chemical properties reveals that the origin of the dissociation problem lies in the flawed description of fractionally occupied species under the P-, Q-, and G-conditions. A novel constraint is introduced that imposes the correct dissociation and enforces size consistency. The effect of this constraint is illustrated with calculations on NO+, CO, CN−, N2, and O22+.

## Subsystem constraints in variational second order density matrix optimization: Curing the dissociative behavior

### Abstract

A previous study of diatomic molecules revealed that variational second-order density matrix theory has serious problems in the dissociation limit when the N-representability is imposed at the level of the usual two-index (P,Q,G) or even three-index (T1,T2) conditions [ H. Van Aggelen et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 5558 (2009) ]. Heteronuclear molecules tend to dissociate into fractionally charged atoms. In this paper we introduce a general class of N-representability conditions, called subsystem constraints, and show that they cure the dissociation problem at little additional computational cost. As a numerical example the singlet potential energy surface of Be B+ is studied. The extension to polyatomic molecules, where more subsystem choices can be identified, is also discussed.

## Variational density matrix optimization using semidefinite programming

### Abstract

We discuss how semidefinite programming can be used to determine the second-order density matrix directly through a variational optimization. We show how the problem of characterizing a physical or N-representable density matrix leads to matrix-positivity constraints on the density matrix. We then formulate this in a standard semidefinite programming form, after which two interior point methods are discussed to solve the SDP. As an example we show the results of an application of the method on the isoelectronic series of Beryllium.