In this work, we designed and fabricated a Casingle bondP composite bio-coating with different surface morphologies on a carbon/carbon (C/C) matrix by means of hybrid supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying (SAPS) and microwave-hydrothermal (MH) technologies. We found that all studied coating materials can support mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation with prolonged culture time (3 days and 7 days) in vitro. Furthermore, according to the (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) CLSM results, the MSCs also showed good attachment and different spreading morphologies on SAPS/MH coatings. As such, C/C matrix, the MH treated coatings with needle-like and rod-like microstructures were chosen for further in vivo investigation. Considering the good bonding between host tissue and the studied materials, the in vivo morphology studies confirmed a good histocompatibility for all coating samples, as well as a decreasing expression for inflammatory factors in a physiological environment. The histological results around the implants indicated different cell aggregation and vascularization ability in the local micro-environment. In particular, based on the reduction of the C/C initial surface flaws (e.g. hydrophobicity, biological inertia and easily producing carbon fragments or particles), the MH treated coating with rod-like surface morphology with a specific surface area (~2.33 m2/g) and roughness (~13.80 μm), showed excellent performance as a promising implant in live tissue.