### Abstract

Background: The reduced, level-independent, Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Hamiltonian is exactly diagonalizable by means of a Bethe ansatz wave function, provided the free variables in the ansatz are the solutions of the set of Richardson-Gaudin equations. On the one side, the Bethe ansatz is a simple product state of generalized pair operators. On the other hand, the Richardson-Gaudin equations are strongly coupled in a nonlinear way, making them prone to singularities. Unfortunately, it is nontrivial to give a clear physical interpretation to the Richardson-Gaudin variables because no physical operator is directly related to the individual variables.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to shed more light on the singular behavior of the Richardson-Gaudin equations, and how this is related to the product wave structure of the Bethe ansatz.

Method: A pseudodeformation of the quasispin algebra is introduced, leading towards a Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in the contraction limit of the deformation parameter. This enables an adiabatic connection of the exact Bethe ansatz eigenstates with pure bosonic multiphonon states. The physical interpretation of this approach is an adiabatic suppression of the Pauli exclusion principle.

Results: The method is applied to a so-called “picket-fence” model for the BCS Hamiltonian, displaying a typical critical behavior in the Richardson-Gaudin variables. It was observed that the associated bosonic multiphonon states change collective nature at the critical interaction strengths of the Richardson-Gaudin equations.

Conclusions: The Pauli exclusion principle is the main responsible for the critical behavior of the Richardson-Gaudin equations, which can be suppressed by means of a pseudodeformation of the quasispin algebra.

©2012 American Physical Society